Shipping is the most widely used medium for transport of goods internationally and, although it is a carbon-efficient transport medium, there is an increasing focus on its broader environmental consequences. For equitable use of the oceans, as well as minimizing impacts of global change, a further development to sustainable shipping is needed. Ship-building and operational standards are introduced and area-based instruments, such as emission control areas (ECAs), are established. However, lack of wider regulations, vague monitoring, unclear environmental impacts and economic uncertainty might cause problems for industry and society.
In ShipTRASE, the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of both near-term and long-term solutions to shipping emission reduction and control mechanisms will be analysed. Potential environmental impacts on the lower atmosphere and upper ocean likely arise from pollutant emission from ship smokestacks and liquid discharge, as well as altered methane emissions. With our transdisciplinary team (atmospheric sciences, chemical oceanography, international law, environmental economy, and engineering), we will investigate how the use of scrubbers and alternative fuels impact the environment and feedback on economics and regulation. In addition, we will involve stakeholders in both Germany and Sweden (industry, local government, large scale regulation) to discuss these topics, share information and outcomes, and co-design further scientific research. The work involved will use various platforms: scrubber laboratory and incubation experiments, numerical modeling, cost-benefit analysis, and survey methodologies. ShipTRASE will deliver environmental, legal, and economic assessments of near-term and long-term solutions to emission reduction strategies. We will also deliver multiple stakeholder dialogues aimed to co-design this research and its outcomes for relevant stakeholders at various levels. Finally, we will deliver open access data, publications, a website, and public lectures about our transdisciplinary results.
Principle investigator: Anna Rutgersson (Anna.Rutgersson@met.uu.se)
Christa Marandino (email@example.com)
Youtube information: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2bygnQYK7fc
Endorsed since April 2020
The project Shipping Emissions in the Arctic and North Atlantic Atmosphere (SEANA) aims to significantly enhance our understanding on the impact of shipping emissions upon atmospheric aerosols and the climate in the Arctic and North Atlantic atmosphere (ANAA). To this aim, SEANA will carry out synergistic yearlong observations at Faroe Islands and Greenland (Thule Observatory) and intensive fieldwork on a research ship along the Northwest (NW) Passage with a focus on (1) sources of aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CNN) and ice nuclei (IN); (2) atmospheric processes including the formation of new particles and aging of primary particles during transport.
SEANA focuses on shipping emissions but our comprehensive observations will include natural emissions from the ocean, for example, marine biogenic volatile compounds and sea salts. The research cruise to the NW Passage will also include observations of surface ocean biogeochemistry to support data interpretation. In particular, SEANA will evaluate the contribution of marine biogenic emissions to new particle formation and growth, as well as to the number concentration of aerosol, CCN and IN. The new experimental data will be integrated with recent and ongoing measurements at existing ANAA stations to generate a benchmark aerosol baselines in ANAA. The new data and process understanding will be used to develop a global aerosol model – GLOMAP. SEANA will use the updated GLOMAP model to simulate the current aerosol “baseline” (sources and processes) in the Arctic, from which the impact of future shipping emissions on aerosols and climate will be projected.
It is expected that the 2020 International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation (ship fuel sulphur limit from 3.5% to 0.5%) will reduce the emissions of sulphur dioxide from shipping emissions and thus their relative contribution to sulphate aerosol in the marine atmosphere. By using sulphur isotope analysis, SEANA will apportion the contribution of sulphate from marine biogenic sources (i.e., dimethyl-sulphite), sea salt and anthropogenic emissions before and after 2020. On this basis, the “real-world” impact of the IMO regulation on sulphate particles in the marine atmosphere will be evaluated. We will also develop the GLOMAP to incorporate sulphur isotope tracers, including those from marine biogenic sources (dimethyl-sulphite and sea salt) and anthropogenic emissions. The model will be constrained with real-world sulphur isotope observations and used to evaluate the impact of the IMO regulation on the composition of aerosols in the marine atmosphere, CCN and the climate.
Principle investigator: Dr. Zongbo Shi (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Project website: www.birmingham.ac.uk/seana
The main goal of the project Sea2Cloud is to investigate how marine emissions from living microorganisms can influence cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), ice nuclei (IN) and ultimately cloud properties. We will investigate the whole process chain of gas-phase emissions, nucleation and growth through the atmospheric column, and impact on the CCN population above oceans. We will also quantify marine primary aerosol emissions, including particles of biological origin, and evaluate how they impact IN and cloud precipitation capabilities. Experiments will be performed in the Southern Hemisphere, especially sensitive to the natural marine aerosol concentration variability.
The experimental approach will be to use mesocosms enclosing large volumes of seawater and the atmosphere above it, in order to link marine emissions to the biogeochemical properties of natural seawater with little perturbations of its biodiversity. This process-based approach will be complemented with ambient measurements of aerosol properties and their precursors simultaneously at low and high altitude sites. At last, a 3-D meso-scale modelling study will help merging process studies and ambient measurements, and assess the role of biologically driven marine emissions on cloud properties.
Principle investigator: Dr. Karine Sellegri (K.Sellegri@opgc.univ-bpclermont.fr)
The Sea2Cloud expedition with the R/V Tangaroa took place east of the New Zealand South Island in March 2020. During the cruise different parameters were measured in the ambient air as well as in the ocean surface seawater and surface microlayer for biogeochemical analysis. In addition, four mesocosm experiments were carried out to study the aerosol fluxes and their gaseous precursors from marine microorganisms under natural conditions.
A footage of the Sea2Cloud is available here: https://youtu.be/0MOOzQLdcZ0
Endorsed since November 2019
Ship exhausts are a significant source of sulfur(S)-containing aerosols to the marine atmosphere and some global models suggest the emissions cause a large negative radiative forcing by modifying cloud properties. International Maritime Organisation (IMO) regulations require that ships in international waters reduce their S emissions from a maximum of 3.5% to 0.5% from January 2020.
This proposal addresses whether the IMO’s 2020 sulfur regulations will substantially reduce the climate cooling effect from ship pollution. ACRUISE will take advantage of this unique large-scale aerosol perturbation to challenge our most advanced models with observations across a wide range of scales. We will quantify the impact of the S regulations on atmospheric chemistry and climate in the North Atlantic and globally.
Five UK institutes are involved to achieve these ambitious goals, bringing together expertise in marine atmospheric chemistry, aircraft observations, aerosol-cloud modelling and satellite observations.
Principle investigator: Dr. Ming-Xi Yang (email@example.com)
Project website: https://www.pml.ac.uk/Research/Projects/ACRUISE
Endorsed since October 2019
The main aim of the AMT4OceanSatFlux project is to provide validated estimates of the air-sea flux of CO2 calculated from a suite of satellite products over a range of Atlantic locations.
A campaign was conducted on the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) in 2018 for satellite algorithm validation in a range of open ocean oligotrophic, eutrophic and coastal waters. To credibly validate satellite estimates of marine geophysical products, like air-sea gas flux or OA, independent ground-based Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRMs) are needed that follow published protocols and procedures, have documented SI traceability and have an associated uncertainty budget.
The strength of AMT4OceanSatFlux is all of the satellite products that are used to estimate the CO2 flux are validated using FRMs. The installation of state-of-the-art eddy co-variance instrumentation to estimate gas exchange provided independent reference measurements for the validation of the satellite estimates of CO2 flux. Global algorithms used to study ocean acidification from space are also being evaluated in this project.
Principle investigator: Dr. Gavin Tilstone (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Project website: https://amt4oceansatflux.org/
REEBUS is a national collaborative research project, which has received funding from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the German Research Foundation (DFG).
Coastal upwelling areas belong to the world’s biologically most productive marine areas. The upwelling in these regions is driven by trade winds blowing parallel to the coast. The combination of trade wind direction and earth rotation causes an offshore transportation of surface water masses allowing cold and nutrient-rich deep water masses to up well. Upwelled surface waters are characterized by a lower temperature, lower oxygen and chlorophyll concentrations and increased nutrient and carbon concentrations. The input of nutrient-rich upwelling water to coastal areas leads to an increase in primary production and turns upwelling regions into highly productive regions, providing a rich biodiversity and approx. 20 percent of the world's fish harvest. Therefore, many of the coastal upwelling areas are of great socio-economic importance, for example, the majority of the West African countries are economically dependent on the fishing industry in upwelling regions.
Upwelling systems are vulnerable to the major global man-made environmental changes such as ocean warming, acidification, and deoxygenation. Further, it is expected that upwelling systems will be indirectly influenced by climate change due to changing trade wind conditions and intensities. The responses of upwelling systems to these environmental changes especially in regards to synergistic or antagonistic effects have hardly been integrated so far. Therefore, reliable predictions of the expected changes within these upwelling systems are not possible yet.
The REEBUS project is based on the observation that oceanic eddies play a central role for the physical, chemical and biological properties of coastal upwelling systems. It is hypothesized that climate change will lead to changes in the statistics and/or characteristics of oceanic eddies which in turn will possibly also influence the characteristics of upwelling systems.
A major goal of the REEBUS project is to gain a better quantitative understanding of the dynamics of mesoscale eddies (eddies with a diameter of approx. 100 km) with a special focus on the coupling of physical, chemical and biological processes within these eddies. Furthermore, the REEBUS project will focus on carbon dioxide (CO2) source/sink mechanisms of mesoscale eddies as well as on the biological carbon pump in the eastern boundary upwelling systems. In addition, it will be investigated how eddies influence their oligotrophic periphery, both in the pelagic as well as in the deep-sea benthic environment. The regional research focus of REEBUS lies on the upwelling area off the coast of West Africa, one of the most productive upwelling systems.
A central part of the REEBUS project are three research expeditions coordinated by GEOMAR and performed with the R/V Meteor to investigate oceanic eddies which are generated off the coast of Mauritania. During these three field campaigns a novel, multi-layered observation approach combined with process models are applied to investigate eddy dynamics and their effects on the biogeochemical and biological system.
Project duration: 01 Jan 2019 - 31 Dec 2021
Project website: https://www.ebus-climate-change.de/reebus
Fischer, G., Romero, O., Toby, E., Iversen, M. et al. (2019). Changes in the dust‐inﬂuenced biological carbon pump in the Canary Current System: Implications from a coastal and an offshore sediment trap record off Cape Blanc, Mauritania. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33. https://doi. org/10.1029/2019GB006194
Sommer, S., Adam, N., Becker, K., Dale, A.,W., Hahn, J., Kampmeier, M., Paulsen, M., Katzenmeier, S., Körtzinger, A. (2020). Role of Eddies in the Carbon Pump of Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems, REEBUS, Cruise Report, Cruise No. M156, 03.07. - 01.08.2019, Mindelo (Cap Verde) - Mindelo (Cap Verde). https://www.tib.eu/de/suchen/id/awi%3Adoi~10.2312%252Fcr_m156/
AMBIEnCE is a National collaborative research project, which has received funding from Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, in the 02/SAICT/2017 – Scientific Research & Technological Development Projects Call.
AMBIEnCE project aims at assessing the impact of atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) deposition on the molecular composition and reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in different coastal marine systems. AMBIEnCE also aims at exploring how the intrinsic chemical features of both OA and DOM drive the solubility and bioavailability of atmospheric-derived trace metals (TM) in seawater. Air particles deposition is an important source of new organic and inorganic nutrients, and potentially toxic TM to seawater. These atmospheric multi-stressors are delivered in very different chemical forms and amounts, impacting the marine DOM pump in ways still poorly understood. The extent to which OA and DOM modify the solubility/bioavailability of atmospheric TM are also unknown due to practical difficulties in studying post-depositional processes.
AMBIEnCE is a high-risk/high-gain project that offers a unique approach to assess the impact of atmospheric organic and inorganic particles deposition on the functioning of two coastal marine systems which are influenced by different atmospheric inputs, variable in time and intensity: Ria de Aveiro and Tagus Estuary. The first stage entails the collection of air particles and seawater at both sites in order to unravel the structural features of OA and marine DOM, and TM content in aerosols and seawater. Afterwards, aerosol seeding experiments in lab-made microcosms will be carried out aiming at mimic natural and anthropogenic OA inputs to surface seawater. This aims at capturing changes in OA composition settling through water column and their effect on marine DOM and TM composition/persistent. These trials will be used to assess the effect of two estuarine species (juvenile seabass & polychaetes) on marine DOM and TM content and composition, and evaluate the distribution and toxicity effects of atmospheric TM in the selected species.
The novelty of AMBIEnCE lies on the use of microcosms to accurately study over time, the effect of potential internal (estuarine species) and external (OA inputs) drivers on DOM and TM composition using real biogeochemical assemblages. Results of this project will provide in-depth knowledge on the chemical features and sources of OA and TM arriving at the marine sites, and explain how these atmospheric multi-stressors impact DOM composition and TM solubility/bioavailability. At long term, innovation created by AMBIEnCE will be maximized in a roadmap so that dissemination of foreground results to society can be optimized. To attain its goals, AMBIEnCE brings together a multidisciplinary team of analytical & environmental chemists and geochemists, with expertise in advanced analytical techniques for profiling complex matrices, and biologists with expertise in environmental toxicology, all from University of Aveiro, and a biochemist from NOVA.ID.FCT with expertise in environmental proteomics.
Principle Investigator: Regina Duarte (email@example.com)
Project website: https://projectambience.wordpress.com/
Duarte, R.M.B.O., Duan, P., Mao, J., Chu, W., Duarte, A.C., Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2020). Exploring water-soluble organic aerosols structures in urban atmosphere using advanced solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Atmospheric Environment 230, 117503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117503
Duarte, R.M.B.O., Duarte, A.C. (2020). Multidimensional analytical techniques in environmental research: Evolution of concepts. In: Multidimensional Analytical Techniques for Advancing Environmental Research, Elsevier, June 2020, edited by Duarte, R.M.B.O., Duarte, A.C., ISBN: 9780128188965. https://www.elsevier.com/books/multidimensional-analytical-techniques-in-environmental-research/duarte/978-0-12-818896-5
Our deficient understanding of Southern Ocean carbon uptake means that projections of future climate change are hindered. This is because net carbon uptake is determined by poorly understood biogeochemical and biological processes in the lower limb of Antarctic overturning circulation.
PICCOLO is an ambitious multi-disciplinary project that will make ground-breaking over-winter observations and use cutting-edge autonomous technologies to elucidate these processes. Multi-season observations in the deep Weddell Gyre, on the continental shelf and under sea ice will quantify rates of carbon uptake, transformation and export as water interacts with the atmosphere, cryosphere and biosphere and then sinks off the shelf into the abyss.
PICCOLO will provide a comprehensive understanding of lower limb carbon processes, and will provide the key biogeochemical information needed to improve future Earth System models.
Project website: https://roses.ac.uk/piccolo/
Endorsed since September 2016
Understanding the role of clouds in the warming and cooling of the planet, and how that role changes in a warming world is one of the biggest uncertainties climate change researchers face. A key feature in this regard is the influence on cloud properties of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), the very small atmospheric aerosol particles necessary for the nucleation of every single cloud droplet. The anthropogenic contribution to CCN is known to be large in some regions; however, the natural processes that regulate CCN over large parts of the globe are less well understood, and particularly in the Great Barrier Reef. The production of new aerosol particles from biogenic sources (forests, marine biota, etc) is a frequent phenomenon capable of affecting aerosol concentrations, and therefore CCN, on both regional and global scales. The biogenic aerosol particles therefore have a major influence on cloud properties and hence climate and the hydrological cycle. Determining the magnitude and drivers of biogenic aerosol production in different ecosystems is therefore crucial for the future development of climate models.
Stretching over 2600 km, along the coast of Queensland, the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is one of the largest and most important ecosystems in Australia. This project will aim to determine the magnitude and drivers of biogenic aerosol production from the GBR.
The fundamental questions that this study will address are:
- What is the significance of this ecosystem as a natural source of aerosol particles?
- How strong is this source at the regional level?
- What is the mechanism of particle production over the GBR?
Measurements will be made via two platforms. The first is Australia’s RV Investigator which will spend 30 days at sea in close proximity to the Great Barrier Reef. The second is the new Australian AIR-BOX, a portable laboratory containing cutting edge atmospheric monitoring equipment which will be deployed downwind of the reef at Misson Beach during the voyage.
CSIRO chemical transport modelling (CTM) will be used to explore the influence of different sources (marine and terrestrial), meteorology and transport on the reactive gases and aerosols observed over the reef. CTM will also be used to explore the vertical distribution of aerosols and CCN in the MBL to determine the influence of both local and distant sources to CCN at cloud height. The data set produced will be used to test and validate aerosol production mechanisms in GLOMAP (Global Model of Aerosol Processes), which will ensure accurate representation of aerosol processes in ACCESS (Australian Community Climate Earth System Simulator).
Principal Investigator: Zoran Ristovski (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) is a five year investigation to resolve key processes controlling ocean system function, their influences on atmospheric aerosols and clouds and their implications for climate.
Observations obtained during four, targeted ship and aircraft measurement campaigns, combined with the continuous satellite and in situ ocean sensor records, will enable improved predictive capabilities of Earth system processes and will inform ocean management and assessment of ecosystem change.
Principal Investigator: Mike Behrenfeld (email@example.com)
Project Manager: Mary Kleb (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Project website: http://naames.larc.nasa.gov/
To improve the accuracy of climate predictions, the direct radiative effects of aerosol and the impacts of aerosol on clouds and precipitation have to be comprehensively addressed; it is well recognized that they represent the largest uncertainties in radiative forcing estimates. Moreover, in contrast to urban regions where extensive work has been conducted, remote regions (e.g., the Canadian Arctic) remain comparatively unstudied despite the need to establish a baseline against which future change can be evaluated. With naturally low aerosol levels, such regions are particularly sensitive to anthropogenic input. According to the Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone by UNEP and WMO in 2011, reductions in black carbon emissions would substantially reduce Arctic warming over the next several decades. However, current models vary greatly in their ability to characterize aerosol in these remote regions. This leads to little confidence in our predictions of climate response to changing levels of short-lived forcing agents, such as black carbon, as regulations evolve in Asia, and as shipping and industry increase in the Arctic. Likewise, enhanced global warming will drive feedbacks in the Earth system whereby Arctic Ocean waters will open to a greater degree, thus increasing rates of DMS emission and biogenically-driven aerosol formation. Also, the predicted increase in boreal forest fires in a warmer climate may lead to more black carbon transport to remote regions. Additional uncertainties in climate predictions arise from a fundamental lack of understanding of aerosol sources, sinks, optical properties, and cloud impacts; for example, the mechanisms and impacts of ice cloud formation, an important mechanism for precipitation, are especially poorly quantified. This complexity requires a concerted approach to better define the mechanisms at play and to establish their role in the present and future climate system.
NETCARE is comprised of the leading scientists in the Canadian climate-aerosol community. The central impetus within the network is that the key uncertainties in this field must be addressed by multidisciplinary studies of interacting components of the Earth system, particularly the ocean, atmosphere, and cryosphere. As well, a range of techniques, extending from satellite and in situ field measurements, lab studies, and models including the Canadian Global Climate Model (GCM), is required to move forward. It is only through detailed field studies supported by process-level modeling that we can develop confidence in larger scale parameterizations within climate models. Similarly, measurements across a range of domains that extend from the surface through the atmosphere are needed to complement remote sensing measurements at single sites. While the fundamental understanding to be gained is widely applicable, the network will focus on the Arctic and Western Canada so as to have maximum impact. Observations will extend across the Arctic from land stations, an icebreaker, and research aircraft. As well, we will assess anthropogenic, biomass burning, and marine aerosol input to Western Canada given the potential for significant effects arising from changing Asian emissions and forest fire activity.
Principle investigator: Jon Abbatt (email@example.com)
Project website: http://www.netcare-project.ca/
The Mediterranean Sea, which has been identified as a “hotspot” for climate change, is therefore expected to experience environmental impacts that are considerably greater than those in many other places around the world. These natural pressures interact with the increasing demographic and economic developments occurring heterogeneously in the coastal zone, making the Mediterranean even more sensitive.
MERMEX aims at studying the response of Mediterranean ecosystems to climate change and anthropogenic pressures, and combines integrated observation / experimental / modeling approaches.
There are still considerable uncertainties in our understanding of the complex interactions between the different forcings and their impacts on Mediterranean ecosystems. There is therefore a strong need to reach a mechanistic understanding of the relevant processes in order to predict changes in ecosystems. The most relevant issues for the future of marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean constitute the main research axes that MERMEX propose to tackle in the next 10 years.
Project website: https://mermex.mio.univ-amu.fr/
Endorsed time series stations
Endorsed since July 2020
The Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) was established by the Plymouth Marine Laboratory in May 2014 for long term observations of ocean-atmosphere interaction. At only a few tens of m away from the water edge and 11m above mean sea level, the observatory on an exposed headland is exposed to marine air over a wide wind sector. Typical southwesterly winds tend to bring relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, winds from the southeast are often contaminated by exhaust plumes from passing ships. Winds from the north are more influenced by terrestrial/urban pollution. Continuous observations at PPAO also allow us to quantify the impact of anthropogenic activity on the coastal environment as well as the influence of the sea on the nearby land.
Principal investigator: Mingxi Yang & Thomas Bell, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK
The Boknis Eck (BE) Time-Series Station is located at the entrance of the Eckernförde Bay (southwestern Baltic Sea). The location of BE is ideal to study (i) a coastal ecosystem under the influence of pronounced changes of salinity and (ii) biogeochemical processes sensitive to changes of dissolved oxygen. BE belongs to the oldest -still operated- oceanic time-series stations worldwide: Biological, chemical and physical measurements are conducted on a monthly basis since 1957. Actual measurements include CTD, dissolved oxygen/nutrients, chlorophyll, Secchi depth and a variety of other biological and chemical measurements. Trace gases such as nitrous oxide, methane and dimethyl sulfide are measured since 2005. A cabled underwater observatory for high resolution online measurements (incl. temperature, salinity, acoustic Doppler current profiler, oxygen, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and methane) has been installed in December 2016.
Coordinator: Hermann W. Bange, GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Endorsed since June 2016
The Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) Marine-Atmospheric Observatory provides an atmospheric sampling tower and site laboratories at Tudor Hill, Bermuda, in support of ongoing and future research by the U.S. and international scientific community. This facility provides the only permanent atmospheric sampling and observation platform in the marine boundary layer of the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Originally constructed in 1987, since 2002 the facility has been operated with support from the U.S. NSF Chemical Oceanography and Atmospheric Chemistry Programs. The facility is a host site for the NOAA Cooperative Air Sampling Network, NASA’s AERONET program and Environment Canada’s Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) program.
The objectives of the Tudor Hill program are:
1) To operate and maintain a state-of-the-art marine atmospheric sampling and observing facility at Tudor Hill, Bermuda;
2) To collect continuous meteorological data and weekly bulk-aerosol and rainwater samples, which are archived at BIOS and made freely available to other researchers;
3) To collect additional atmospheric samples and data for other investigators (primarily in longer-term time-series programs), and to provide for the use of the facility by other investigators (primarily in shorter-term intensive programs).
Principal Investigator: Andrew J. Peters (email@example.com)
Support letter from SOLAS
If your research proposal falls within the science areas defined in the SOLAS 2015-2025 Science Plan and Organisation, you can ask for a letter of support from SOLAS to add to your proposal.
To do so, send the SOLAS IPO a summary of the proposed research activities, explaining which SOLAS activities it addresses. Also mention any specific points which you wish to have included in the support letter. Once your project gets funded, think about requesting SOLAS endorsement for it.