Related Science

Several international projects, activities, initiatiaves, field programmes, events, and Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Groups are related to SOLAS science.

Endorsed Ocean Decade Actions

The United Nations has proclaimed a Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030) (the Ocean Decade) to support efforts to reverse the cycle of decline in ocean health and gather ocean stakeholders worldwide behind a common framework that will ensure ocean science can fully support countries in creating improved conditions for sustainable development of the Ocean.

The vision of the Ocean Decade is 'the science we need for the ocean we want'. To achieve the Ocean Decade vision, a wide range of partners will implement endorsed Decade Actions in the form of programmes, projects or activities over the next ten years.

SOLAS is a partner of the following endorsed Ocean Decade Actions.

Coastal-SOS - Coastal Zones Under Intensifying Human Activities and Changing Climate: A Regional Programme Integrating Science, Management and Society to Support Ocean Sustainability

Lead institution: Xiamen University, China

With 2 billion people relying on its resources, the East Asian seas have nourished rapid economic growth during past decades, which has unfortunately occurred at the expense of ocean health.

This initiative articulates a novel approach of cross-sectoral partnership in designing, conducting and delivering “the science we need for the ocean we want”. Through interdisciplinary research, we propose to examine the trajectories of six model East Asian coastal ecosystems over the past 50 years and predict their future (30-year) direction. The initiative enables effective integration of science, governance, and society to fundamentally change the business-as-usual development model of the coastal zone.

This project is hosted by the Ocean Decade programme Ocean Cities, an international network of cities in harmony with the marine environment.

Start Date: 01/01/2022
End Date: 31/12/2030

Contact: Minhan Dai (

Ocean Decade website here

GOOD - Global Ocean Oxygen Decade

Lead institution: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, on behalf of the Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE)

Oxygen dissolved in seawater supports the largest ecosystems on the planet. It is alarming that the ocean is losing oxygen, termed ocean deoxygenation, at a rapid rate, primarily due to global warming by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, and pollution by nutrients and organic wastes particularly in coastal waters.

GOOD will raise global awareness about ocean deoxygenation, provide knowledge for action and develop mitigation and adaptation strategies and solutions to ensure continued provision of ecosystem services, and minimize impacts on the ocean economy through local, regional, and global efforts, including transdisciplinary research, innovative outreach, and ocean education and literacy.

Download the Ocean Decade Action Factsheet here.

Contact: Andreas Oschlies (


OASIS - Observing Air-Sea Interactions Strategy

Lead programme: SCOR Working Group #162 - Developing an Observing Air-Sea Interactions Strategy (OASIS)

Air-sea exchanges of energy, moisture, and gases drive and modulate the Earth's weather and climate, influencing life, including our own.

These air-sea interactions fuel the hydrological cycle and affect precipitation across the globe. Air-sea interactions affect the distribution of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and ocean, how seawater flows and winds blow, and how pollutants floating on the ocean surface move – information critical to policymakers, industry, and civil society. OASIS will provide observational-based knowledge to fundamentally improve weather, climate and ocean prediction, promote healthy oceans, the blue economy, and sustainable food and energy.

Download the Ocean Decade Action Factsheet here.

Contacts: and


OSF - Ocean to Climate Seamless Forecasting system

Lead institution: First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), Ministry of Natural Resources, China

The goal of the OSF programme is to dramatically improve our forecasting capability for the ocean and climate.

OSF builds on very recent observational and computational breakthroughs. During its implementation, satellites will be launched, new-generation drifting buoys will be deployed, transformative theories on air-sea interactions will be formulated, and a seamless ocean-to-climate forecasting system will be developed. The overarching goals of OSF are to (1) understand the ocean-climate nexus, (2) enhance observation capabilities using novel technologies, (3) integrate observations with cutting-edge ocean-to-climate models, (4) provide public services and products through developing a multi-hazard early warning system, and (5) exchange advanced knowledge and theories on ocean science and ocean management with the young generation, especially to those in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), least developed countries (LDCs) and land-locked developing countries (LLDCs).

Start date: 01/06/2022
End date: 31/12/2030

Lead Contact: Fangli Qiao (

Ocean Decade website:                                                  

Related Activities and Initiatives

SOLAS collaborates with other scientific organisations on short topical projects and larger global and regional projects and events.

The following activities and initiatives are related to SOLAS science.

Our common future ocean in the Earth system – quantifying coupled cycles of carbon, oxygen, and nutrients for determining and achieving safe operating spaces with respect to tipping points (COMFORT)

COMFORT is a Research and Innovation Action project funded under the Horizon 2020 Societal Challenges programme of the European Union.

COMFORT will close knowledge gaps for key ocean tipping elements within the Earth system under anthropogenic physical and chemical climate forcing through a coherent interdisciplinary research approach. It aims to provide added value to decision and policy makers in terms of science based safe marine operating spaces, refined climate mitigation targets, and feasible long-term mitigation pathways. The project focuses on the triple threat of (1) warming, (2) deoxygenation, and (3) ocean acidification, and how to optimally deal with this threat. Links to other Earth system reservoirs will be included in the assessment where relevant.

The following specific objectives will be addressed:

  • Identify climate-induced ocean tipping points and attribute them to processes.
  • Quantify related impacts and establish multi-dimensional safe operating spaces.
  • Provide respective mitigation targets and options, as well as projected mitigation pathways.
  • Integrate stakeholder knowledge and provide new results including data to users.

COMFORT website:

GESAMP Working Group 41 on Marine Geoengineering

In September 2015 the Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP) discussed a proposal to establish a working group on marine geoengineering and concluded that a study was needed to:

Better understand the potential environmental (and social/economic) impacts of different marine geoengineering approaches on the marine environment; and
Provide advice to the London Protocol Parties to assist them in identifying those marine geoengineering techniques that it might be sensible to consider for listing in the new Annex 4 of the Protocol.

GESAMP established Working Group 41 on marine geoengineering in 2015 under the lead of IMO and supported by IOC of UNESCO and WMO, under the co-chairmanship of Dr. Chris Vivian and Professor Philip Boyd.

GESAMP WG 41 website:
The working group met in May 2016 and April 2017 and worked intersessionally to prepare a report of their deliberations. The working group published its first report in March 2019. It provides an initial high-level review of twenty-seven proposed marine geoengineering techniques - with its potential subsets - for climate mitigation that focuses on their efficacy, practicality, side-effects, knowledge gaps, verification and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. The information that underpins each approach varies widely from sufficient to insufficient and suggests that a sequence of developments (from concept development, through to pilot studies, modelling and further studies) will assist in the transition from insufficient to sufficient information in order to permit scientific assessment.

Download the report here.

GESAMP Working Group 38 on Atmospheric Input of Chemicals to the Ocean

Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP) Working Group 38 was formed in 2008 because of growing concern about the impact of atmospheric deposition of both natural and anthropogenic substances on ocean chemistry, biology, and biogeochemistry as well as climate. Sponsors of those WG 38 efforts have included WMO, IMO, SCOR, SIDA, the European Commission Joint Research Centre, the University of Arizona, the International Environment Institute at the University of Malta, and the University of East Anglia, and the US National Science Foundation.

The Nitrogen Study and its Terms of Reference

Although the early work of Working Group 38 did consider some aspects of the deposition and impacts of atmospheric nitrogen species on the ocean, it was recognized that this was a significant and complex scientific issue that required a more in depth study. An abbreviated form of the new Terms of Reference were as follows:

  • Update the geographical estimates of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen deposition to the global ocean;
  • Re-evaluate the magnitude and impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on marine biogeochemistry;
  • Provide a more reliable estimate of the impact of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on the production of additional nitrous oxide in the ocean and its subsequent emission to the atmosphere;
  • Evaluate the extent to which anthropogenic nitrogen, delivered to the coastal zone via rivers, is transported to the open ocean; and
  • Make a detailed estimate of the input and impact of anthropogenic nitrogen in the area of the Northern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.

GESAMP WG 38 website:
From 27 February to March 2 two workshops took place at the University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, United Kingdom under the auspices of GESAMP Working Group 38 and sponsored by WMO, NSF, SCOR, SOLAS and UEA. These workshops focussed on the changes in the acid/base balance of the atmosphere and ocean, and their impacts on air-sea exchange.

Download SOLAS Event Report Issue 1

Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE)

Listening to the calls demanding increased cooperation and communication around low oxygen concentration in the marine environment, IOC-UNESCO initiated an ad hoc network of scientists focused on oxygen in both the open ocean and coastal areas – the Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE).

The Network’s scientific work, outreach, and capacity building efforts include facilitating communication with other established networks and working groups, improving observations systems, identifying and filling knowledge gaps, as well as developing related capacity development activities.


In September 2019, SOLAS sponsored the GO2NE summer school which took place in Xiamen, China.

Download SOLAS Event Report Issue 15

The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2)

The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2) is a major global scientific program which will engage the international scientific community in collaborative oceanographic and atmospheric research from coastal environments to the deep sea over the period 2015-2020, revealing new information on the Indian Ocean (i.e. its currents, its influence upon the climate, its marine ecosystems) which is fundamental for future sustainable development and expansion of the Indian Ocean’s blue economy.

The International Indian Ocean Science Conference 2020 (IIOSC-2020) will be held 16-20 March 2020 in Goa, India (Conference website)


Xiamen Symposium on Marine Environmental Sciences (XMAS)

To foster knowledge and ideas exchange within the marine environmental science community and, in particular, to promote interdisciplinary studies, the State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science (MEL) of Xiamen University, China, initiated the Xiamen Symposium on Marine Environmental Sciences (XMAS).

The XMAS-III was held in January 2017, attracting over 620 participants from more than 140 institutions across 21 countries.

The XMAS-IV was held in January 2019. A SOLAS session on 'Surface Ocean and Lower Atmosphere Study - Air-Sea interactions and their climatic and environmental impacts' was convened by Guiling Zhang, Huiwang Gao, Mohd Talib Latif, Jun Nishioka, Senchao Lai, Bingbing Wang.

Download SOLAS Event Report Issue 13

The XMAS-V will be held in January 2021. The focus will be on how Multidisciplinary Sciences Can Serve a Sustainable and Healthy Ocean. It will be one of the important hallmarks of Xiamen University’s centenary celebrations. The symposium will consist of different, interconnected sessions covering physical oceanography, marine biogeochemistry, biological oceanography, and marine ecotoxicology along with workshops for emerging topics in marine environmental sciences such as how to achieve the goals outlined in the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030).

SOLAS is a co-sponsor of the event.

Event website:

International Symposium on the Effects of Climate Change on the World Oceans

The  4th  International Symposium on the Effects of Climate Change on the World Oceans (ECCWO) took place from 2-8 June 2018 in Washington, DC, USA. The Symposium focused on un-derstanding and responding to climate impacts on ocean systems. SOLAS organised a session on “Eastern Boundary upwelling sys-tems: diversity, coupled dynamics and sensitivity to climate change”, which was co-chaired by Ivonne Montes (Perú ) and Ryan Rykaczewski (USA).

SOLAS was a co-sponsor of the event. 

Symposium website:

Download SOLAS Event Report Issue 10


Workshop on Oceanic Methane and Nitrous Oxide: The present situation and future scenarios

In October 2018, a SOLAS supported OCB workshop addressed the following questions to help determine the future directions of methane and nitrous oxide measurements in the global oceans:

Where in the global oceans should spatial and temporal surveys be conducted to discern climatologically-relevant changes in water-column inventories of methane and nitrous oxide?  This is an important question facing oceanographers today. However, attempts to answer this question stimulate many related and relevant queries concerning the production and consumption of methane and nitrous oxide in the ocean. For example, how will their water-column concentrations be influenced by factors such as increasing seawater temperatures, decreasing oxygen concentrations, and changing nutrient loading? Do we have sufficient analytical and observational capacity to conduct robust temporal surveys? Do we sufficiently comprehend the microbial metabolic pathways that produce and consume these two trace gases?

Watch the workshop's video output here:


Publication: Samuel T. Wilson et al. (2020) Ideas and perspectives: A strategic assessment of methane and nitrous oxide measurements in the marine environment Biogeosciences, 17, 5809–5828.

The Latin American Ocean Acidification Network (LAOCA)

The mission of the Latin American Ocean Acidification Network (LAOCA) is to communicate and enhance understanding of ocean acidification process in Latin America, and its interaction with other local processes and their impact on marine ecosystems and their services through international cooperation.

The LAOCA network consists of 36 members from 8 Latin American countries:
Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru. Developing researchers in Ocean Acidification in 4 main lines of research: Carbonate system chemistry (37%), Modeling (13%), Socio-Ecological Assessment (15%),
In turn, these lines of research cover the following environments : Staurino (27%), Coastal (49%), and Oceanic (24%).


SCOR Working Groups

Every year, the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) forms new Working Groups (WG) which consist of up to ten members and should be completed in four years.

The following WGs are relevant to SOLAS science.

WG 167 - Reducing Uncertainty in Soluble aerosol Trace Element Deposition (RUSTED)

Chairs: Rachel Shelley (UK), Douglas Hamilton (USA), Morgane Perron (France)

Other Full Members: Hind Al-Abadleh (Canada), Peter Croot (Ireland), Diego Gaiero (Argentina), Cassandra Gaston (USA), Akinori Ito (Japan), Ashwini Kumar (India), Ying Ye (Germany)

Associate Members: Alex Baker (UK), Andrew Bowie (Australia), Suzanne Fietz (South Africa), Cecile Guieu (France), Tung-Yuan Ho (Taiwan), Nicholas Meskhidze (USA), Yeala Shaked (Israel), Mingjin Tang (China), Holly Winton (New Zealand), Andrew Wozniak (USA)

Terms of Reference

  1. With a primary focus on Fe, review the past three decades of literature to identify knowledge gaps in relating the physicochemical properties of aerosol micronutrients with their solubility and bioavailability in the ocean. Synthesise data collected into: (1) an open access peer-reviewed research directions manuscript, providing guidance for future research; and (2) a database of soluble aerosol Fe measurements, providing a consistent constraint for models and a spatiotemporal focus for where new observations are most needed.

  2. Incorporate the results of the ongoing aerosol TE intercomparison to: (1) recommend a set of Standard Operating Procedures for common leach schemes; (2) publish a manuscript of comparative results for the leach schemes investigated; and (3) assess aerosol TE solubility data produced in the last 20-30 years to inform modellers on how to choose the optimal data for model validation and constraint.

  3. Utilise the available data for other aerosol trace elements and aerosol chemical composition to advance our understanding of the solubility of Fe and other biogeochemically-important elements. A synthesis paper of the relationship between aerosol TE concentrations and fractional solubility will be published.

  4. Bring together the observational and modelling communities to capitalise on the progress made from ToRs 1-3 to identify ways in which current numerical models can improve their handling of Fe, including impacts beyond ocean biogeochemistry. Address differences between laboratory and model solubilisation schemes, linking to their environmental relevance. Initiate transdisciplinary discussion to identify which micronutrients most require study next and publish the related guidance.

Approved: October 2022

Financial Sponsors: SCOR

Upcoming event: tbc


WG 166 - Developing resources for the study of Methylated Sulfur compound cycling PROcesses in the ocean (DMS-PRO)

Chairs: Martí Galí (Spain), Daniela del Valle (Argentina)

Other Full Members: Steve Archer (USA), José González (Spain), Hakase Hayashida (Japan), Franceas Hopkins (UK), Sohiko Kameyama (Japan), Erin McParland (USA), Jacqueline Stefels (Netherlands), Marcos Zárate (Argentina)

Associate Members: Hermann Bange (Germany), Eva Bucciarelli (France), Elisabeth Deschaseaux (Australia), Ki-Tae Park (South Korea), Damodar Shenoy (India), Jon Todd (UK), Philippe Tortell (Canada), Lenny Winkel (Switzerland), Gui-Peng Yang (China), Miming Zhang (China)

Terms of Reference

  1. To develop community consensus on the measurement of MSC cycling rates, evaluate the suitability of available methods, and recommend standard operating practices (SOP).

  2. To compile a comprehensive database of MSC cycling rates in the ocean and to freely disseminate the database and related documentation according to the FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability) principles.

  3. To develop a framework for the quality assessment and control, standardization, and curation of MSC cycling datasets.

  4. To analyze and summarize the patterns of MSC cycling rates in the global ocean in relation to their abiotic and biotic environment.

  5. To provide expert guidance on the use of the MSC cycling database for model development and evaluation.

  6. To improve the coordination between measurements of MSC cycling rates and stocks, and foster interdisciplinary research by relating these to other biogeochemical variables and molecular and ‘omics data.

  7. To establish an international community of practice focused on research, capacity development, and oceanographic multidisciplinary collaboration in the topic of oceanic S cycle.

Approved: October 2022

Financial Sponsors: SCOR

Upcoming event: tbc


WG 163 - Coupling of ocean-ice-atmosphere processes: from sea-Ice biogeochemistry to aerosols and Clouds (CIce2Clouds)

Chairs: Nadja Steiner (Canada) and Megan Willis (USA)

Other Full Members: Thorsten Bartels-Rausch (Switzerland), Odile Crabeck (Belgium), Markus Frey (UK), Hakase Hayashida (Australia), Anoop S. Mahajan (India), Daiki Nomura (Japan), Jennie Thomas (France), Liyang Zhan (China)

Associate Members: Jessie Creamean (USA), Srishti Dasarathy (USA), Bruno Delille (Belgium), Inge Deschepper (Canada), Francois Fripiat (Belgium), Sakiko Ishino (Japan), Hyung-Gyu Lim (USA/Korea), Louis Marelle (Norway/France), Klaus Meiners (Australia), Lisa Miller (Canada), Ilka Peeken (Germany), Jacqueline Stefels (Netherlands/Germany), Marcello Vichi (South Africa), Esty Willcox (Canada), Paul Zieger (Sweden)

Terms of Reference

  1. To prioritize key coupled biological and chemical systems that drive atmospheric reactive trace gas, aerosol, and cloud properties in polar ocean environments. Synthesize expertise from ocean, sea-ice, snow, and atmospheric chemistry communities to provide a hierarchy of chemical species that reflect common overlapping science questions.

  2. To identify similarities and differences in controls on exchange processes between the Arctic and Antarctic O-SI-S-A systems. Compare and contrast common sea-ice and snow properties at both poles. Use this polar ocean comparison to describe how sea-ice properties control exchange processes, and constrain projections of future changes.

  3. To develop a conceptual model of exchange processes in O-SI-S-A systems, focusing on key reactive trace gas and aerosol species prioritized in O1. Conceptual model evolution will be based on existing observational and numerical expertise, and will reflect the impact of heterogeneity in sea-ice environments at present and under future climate change scenario.

  4. To develop interdisciplinary campaign planning recommendations to guide future studies and address model and measurement gaps. Building on the conceptual model (O3), we will identify future needs in observations and model parameterisations, and outline requirements for fully integrated, multidisciplinary and collaborative O-SI-S-A field, laboratory, and modeling research.

  5. To facilitate community and capacity building opportunities for sustainable multidisciplinary science at the O-SI-S-A interface. Engage scientifically emerging countries and early career scientists in both observational and modeling communities.

Approved: October 2021

Financial Sponsors: SCOR

Upcoming event: tbc


WG 162- Developing an Observing Air-Sea Interactions Strategy (OASIS)

Chairs: Meghan Cronin (USA), Sebastiaan Swart (Sweden)

Other Full Members: Nadia Pinardi (Italy), R. Venkatesan (India), Phil Browne (UK), Warren Joubert (South Africa), Ute Schuster (UK), Christa Marandino (Germany), Shuangling Chen (China), Clarissa Anderson (USA)

Associate Members: Jim Edson (USA), Zhaohui Chen (China), Juliet Hermes (South Africa), Fabrice Ardhuin (France), Oscar Alves (Australia), Hiroyuki Tomita (Japan)

Terms of Reference

  1. Harmonize the recommendations from the OceanObs’19 CWPs into a unified Observing Air-Sea Interaction Strategy (OASIS) by identifying and ranking overlaps and resolving apparent contradictions, focusing on global air-sea exchanges of heat, moisture, momentum, important greenhouse gasses, biogenic trace gasses, and the multidisciplinary boundary layer variables associated with these air-sea exchanges.

  2. Produce a capacity building strategy that enables developing nations (including least developed nations and island nations) to actively participate in and benefit from local-to-global air-sea interaction observations. This will involve a training strategy, as well as identification of opportunities for leveraging contributions by new partners.

  3. Develop and assess network designs that optimize air-sea interaction observations,  following the Framework for Ocean Observations, in coordination with OceanPredict, and other working groups focused on optimizing network design.

  4. Develop a strategy for air-sea interaction process studies to address knowledge gaps;  to improve model and satellite representation of Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs), Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), and Essential Biological Variables (EBVs) associated with air-sea interaction processes; and to develop parameterizations to relate variables that are difficult to measure with variables that can be broadly observed.

  5. Develop a strategy for assessing interoperability of surface observing platforms. This will include intercomparisons of EOV, ECV, and EBVs observed from different platforms; development of best practices; and development of procedures to increase Technical Readiness Levels and expand technology solutions.

  6. Build community and capacity for using, operating, and developing air-sea interaction observational platforms that allow collaborative partnerships with existing national and international air-sea interaction working groups and observational coordination groups.

Approved: October 2020

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF

OASIS was endorsed by the UN Ocean Decade, see here

Upcoming event: tbc


WG 155 - Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS): diversity, coupled dynamics and sensitivity to climate change

Co-chairs: Ivonne Montes (Peru) and Ruben Escribano (Chile)

Other Full Members: Francisco Chavez (USA), Enrique Curchitser (USA), Boris Dewitte (France), Sara Fawcett (South Africa), Salvador Lluch-Cota (Mexico), Baye Cheikh Mbaye (Senegal), Andreas Oschlies (Germany), and Parv Suntharalingam (UK)

Associate Members: Edward Allison (USA), Javier Aristegui (Spain), Xavier Capet (France), Ming Feng (Australia), Iris Kriest (Germany), Eric Machu (France), Ryan Rykaczewski (PICES, USA), Lynne Shannon (South Africa), Damodar Shenoy (India), and Beatriz Yanicelli (Chile)

The SCOR Working Group 155 is focused on reviewing the existing knowledge on EBUS and formulate a strategic recommendation white paper for setting up regional observational systems and climate modeling approaches to monitor and understand physical and biogeochemical ocean-atmosphere processes. These observational systems will be instrumental in improving the performance and reliability of climate models in these socio-economically relevant regions of the world ocean.

Approved: September 2017

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF, PICES

Upcoming event: Open Science Conference September 5 - 10, 2021 Venue: Lima, Perú (Conference website)


WG 154 - Integration of Plankton-Observing Sensor Systems to Existing Global Sampling Programs (P-OBS)

Co-chairs: Emmanuel Boss (USA) and Anya Waite (Germany)

Other Full Members: Silvia Acinas (Spain), Ilana Berman-Frank (Israel), Marcela Cornejo (Chile), Katja Fennel (Canada), Heidi Sosik (USA), Sandy Thomalla (South Africa), Julia Uitz (France), and Hidekatsu Yamazaki (Japan)

Associate Members: Sonia Batten (Canada and PICES), Jørgen Berge (Norway), Herve Claustre (France), Gérald Grégori (France), Johannes Karstensen (Germany), Frank Muller-Karger (USA), Anthony Richardson (Australia), Bernadette Sloyan (Australia), and Rik Wanninkhof (USA)

Terms of Reference

To identify best practices (technologies and sampling protocols) and technical feasibility to incorporate plankton measurements into global ocean observing platforms (initially GO-SHIP and for expansion into the mooring array of OceanSITES).

  1. Identify current technologies (sensors as well as water sample analysis) that can be integrated into existing observing infrastructure to provide input and guide studies of plankton for marine ecosystem and biogeochemistry studies.
  2. Provide the necessary details associated with every technology/measurement proposed (e.g., power, cost, and human effort).
  3. Document potential applications, including science case studies and lists of publications, and document measurement protocols. Develop adequate protocols when these are not available.
  4. Identify synergies with specific measurements done from other observing programs (e.g., BGC-Argo, space-based measurements, Continuous Plankton Recorder surveys) to provide cross-calibration and a better representation of the 4-D distribution of the parameter measured.
  5. Identify technological limitations and/or gaps, and identify areas of priority investments to develop and implement the required observation technologies and tools for specific needs.
  6. Increase awareness of the availability of biological oceanographic datasets internationally and identify barriers to their access and use, particularly in developing nations.

Approved: September 2017

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF, PICES


WG 153 - Floating Litter and its Oceanic TranSport Analysis and Modelling (FLOTSAM)

Chairs: Stefano Aliani (Italy)

Vice-Chairs: Nikolai Maximenko (USA), Kara Lavender Law (USA), and Erik van Sebille (Netherlands)

Other Full Members: Bertrand Chapron (France), Irina Chubarenko (Russia), Atsuhiko Isobe (Japan), Victor Martinez-Vicente (UK), Peter Ryan (South Africa), Won Joon Shim (South Korea), and Martin Thiel (Chile)

Associate Members: Melanie Bergmann (Germany), Yi Chao (USA), Baylor Fox-Kemper (USA), Denise Hardesty (Australia), Tobias Kukulka (USA), Laurent Lebreton (New Zealand), Christophe Maes (France), and Miguel Morales Maqueda (UK)

Terms of Reference

  1. Identify gaps in our knowledge of the near-surface ocean dynamics that may affect litter distribution and transport.
  2. Improve future marine litter modelling capabilities.
  3. Evaluate existing and emerging remote sensing technologies that can be applied to marine litter in the open ocean.
  4. Improve awareness of the scientific understanding of marine debris, based on better observations and modelling results.

Approved: September 2017

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF


WG 152 - Measuring Essential Climate Variables in Sea Ice (ECVice)

Co-chairs: Daiki Nomura (Japan), François Fripiat (Belgium) and Brent Else (Canada)

Other Full Members: Bruno Delille (Belgium), Mar Fernandez-Méndez (Norway), Lisa Miller (Canada), Ilka Peeken (Germany), Janne Markus Rintala (Finland), Maria van Leeuwe (Netherlands), and Fan Zhang (China-Beijing).

Associate Members: Katarina Abrahamsson (Sweden), Jeff Bowman (USA), James France (UK), Agneta Fransson (Norway), Delphine Lannuzel (Australia), Brice Loose (USA), Klaus Meiners (Australia), Christopher J. Mundy (Canada), Hyoung Chul Shin (Korea), Jean-Louis Tison (Belgium), and Marcello Vichi (South Africa)

Terms of Reference

  1. Publish synthetic reviews compiled from measurements demonstrating large, unresolved discrepancies, with a special emphasis on primary production, gas concentrations and fluxes. These detailed reviews will draw on both the literature and unpublished studies to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses related to each methodology.
  2. Design and coordinate intercalibration experiments to evaluate different methods for key parameters. In addition to organizing field experiments, we will pursue use of ice tank facilities and stimulate and support applications for funding, at both national and international levels, to further facilitate the experiments. If successful, manuscripts will be written and the outcomes will be presented in the guide of best practice to support the recommendations.
  3. Design intercomparison studies to facilitate validation and adoption of new technologies for assessing the complexity and heterogeneity of sea ice at various spatial and temporal scales.
  4. Create a guide of best practices for biological and biogeochemical studies in the sea-ice environment. This will be accomplished using a web-based forum for compiling and disseminating the outcomes of past and new intercomparison studies.

Approved: September 2016

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF


WG 151 - Iron Model Intercomparison Project (FeMIP)

Co-chairs: Alessandro Tagliabue (UK) and Stephanie Dutkiewicz (USA)

Other Full Members: Tatiana Ilyina (Germany), Kazuhiro Misumi (Japan), Fanny Monteiro (UK), J. Keith Moore (USA), Yeala Shaked (Israel), Marcello Vichi (South Africa), Christoph Völker (Germany), Mustafa Yücel (Turkey)

Associate Members: Olivier Aumont (France), Alex Baker (UK), Philip Boyd (Australia), Fei Chai (China-Beijing), Peter Croot (Ireland), Christel Hassler (Switzerland), Eun Young Kwon (Korea), Jun Nishioka (Japan), Maite Maldonado (Canada), Mark Moore (UK), Andy Ridgwell (USA), Benjamin Twining (USA)

Terms of Reference

  1. To identify best practices for minimum complexity representations of the iron cycle in models , with options given for more advanced aspects, and publish the guidance in a peer-reviewed paper.
  2. To develop tools for a wide variety of platforms to validate global model results in a standardised way and make these available via a peer-reviewed publication and a website.
  3. To facilitate a focussed intercomparison of iron models to constrain the impact of varying residence times and a consensus dust deposition scheme and publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal.
  4. To review how to represent biological interactions in the iron cycle, the linkages to key phytoplankton species and the interactions with zooplankton and bacteria, as well as broader connections with other biogeochemical cycles and publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal.

Approved: September 2016

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF


WG 149 - Changing Ocean Biological Systems (COBS): How will biota respond to a changing ocean?

Chair: Philip Boyd (Australia)

Other Full Members: Aurea Ciotti (Brazil), Sinead Collins (UK), Kunshan Gao (China-Beijing), Jean-Pierre Gattuso (France), Marion Gehlen (France), David Hutchins (USA), Christina McGraw (Australia), Jorge Navarro (Chile), and Ulf Riebesell (Germany)

Associate Members: Haimanti Biswas (India), Sam Dupont (Sweden), Katharina Fabricius (Australia), Jonathan Havenhand (Sweden), Catriona Hurd (Australia), Haruko Kurihara (Japan), Gorann Nilsson (Norway), Uta Passow (USA), Hans-Otto Pörtner (Germany), and Marcello Vichi (Italy)

Terms of Reference

  1. Assess the current status of emerging research themes by reviewing the literature to assess the dominant research foci, their relative coverage, and identify any major gaps and/or limitations. Publish this review in an open-access peer-reviewed journal.
  2. Raise awareness across different scientific communities (evolutionary experimental biologists, ecologists, physiologists, chemists, modelers) to initiate better alignment and integration of research efforts.
  3. Co-ordinate thematic transdisciplinary sessions to attract and assemble experts from other fields such as paleoceanography and marine ecotoxicology to learn from the successful approaches their fields have developed to address multiple drivers.
  4. Develop a multi-driver Best-Practice Guide (BPG, or other tools) as one potentially valuable way to help this research field move forward in a cohesive manner.
  5. Mentor early-career scientists in the design process for complex multiple driver manipulation experiments, familiarize them with BPG, and teach them practical methodologies for the analysis of their experimental findings.
  6. Publish a series of short articles in both the scientific media and with scientific journalists to disseminate the challenges and opportunities surrounding multiple drivers and ecosystems.
  7. Engage with policy-makers and science communication experts to produce a glossary of terms and an implementation guide for policy-makers to better understand the role of multiple drivers in altering marine living resources and ecosystem services.

Approved: December 2015

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF, PICES


WG 143 - Dissolved N2O and CH4 measurements: Working towards a global network of ocean time series measurements of N2O and CH4

Chair(s): Herman Bange (Germany) and Sam Wilson (USA)

Other Full Members: Mercedes de la Paz Arándiga (Spain), Laura Farias (Chile), Cliff Law (New Zealand), Wajih Naqvi (India), Gregor Rehder (Germany), Philippe Tortell (Canada), Rob Upstill-Goddard (UK), and Guiling Zhang (China-Beijing)

Associate Members: John Bullister (USA), Jan Kaiser (UK), Annette Kock (Germany), Sunyoung Park (Korea), Andy Rees (UK), and Alyson Santoro (USA)

Terms of Reference

  1. Establish the analytical reporting procedures to be used for N2O and CH4
  2. Adopt an appropriate standard to be used by the scientific community
  3. Conduct an intercalibration exercise between the time series programs
  4. Host at least two international meetings
  5. Establish framework for an N2O/CH4 ocean time-series network
  6. Write a global oceanic N2O/CH4 summary paper for publication in Annual Review of Marine Science or an equivalent journal.

Approved: November 2013

Financial Sponsors: NSF, SCOR


WG 141 - Sea-Surface Microlayers

Chair(s): Michael Cunliffe (UK) and Oliver Wurl (Germany)

Other Full Members: Anja Engel (Germany), Sanja Frka (Croatia), Sonia Giasenella (Brazil), Bill Landing (USA), Mohd T. Latif (Malaysia), Caroline Leck (Sweden), Gui-Peng Yang (China-Beijing), and Christopher Zappa (USA)

Associate Members: David Carlson (UK), Alina Ebling (USA), Werner Ekau (Germany), Blaženka Gašparović (Croatia), Karstan Laß (Germany), Miguel Leal (USA), Anna Lindroos (Finland), Kenneth Mopper (USA), Alexander Soloviev (USA), Christian Stolle (Germany), Robert Upstill-Goddard (UK), and Svein Vagle (Canada)

Terms of Reference

  1. Review sampling techniques and provide best practice sampling protocols. Such protocols will support new scientists entering the field of SML research to produce reliable and comparable data among different research groups/oceanic regions. The best practice sampling document will be made freely available online.

  2. Create a consensus definition of the SML in terms of physical, chemical and biological perspectives for a better understanding within the ocean science community, and discuss the SML’s role in a changing ocean. This will be delivered as an opinion/position paper in a peer-reviewed journal and will support future international projects concerning the SML and ocean change.

  3. Initiate sessions on SML research during major meetings (e.g., Ocean Sciences Meetings), to increase the awareness of the importance of the SML within the general ocean science community.

  4. Summarize and publish the latest advances in microlayer research in a special issue of a peer-reviewed journal, including consolidation of existing sea surface microlayer datasets among different disciplines (chemistry, biology, atmospheric, physics). The publication will promote new research ideas and projects at an interdisciplinary level.

Approved: October 2012

Financial Sponsors: NSF, SCOR

R/V Falkor Cruise 2019
R/V Falkor Cruise 2016