Related Science

Several international projects, activities, initiatiaves, field programmes, events, and Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Groups are related to SOLAS science.

Related Activities and Initiatives

SOLAS collaborates with other scientific organisations on short topical projects and larger global and regional projects and events.

The following activities and initiatives are related to SOLAS science.

GESAMP Working Group 38 on Atmospheric Input of Chemicals to the Ocean

Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP) Working Group 38 was formed in 2008 because of growing concern about the impact of atmospheric deposition of both natural and anthropogenic substances on ocean chemistry, biology, and biogeochemistry as well as climate. Sponsors of those WG 38 efforts have included WMO, IMO, SCOR, SIDA, the European Commission Joint Research Centre, the University of Arizona, the International Environment Institute at the University of Malta, and the University of East Anglia, and the US National Science Foundation.

The Nitrogen Study and its Terms of Reference

Although the early work of Working Group 38 did consider some aspects of the deposition and impacts of atmospheric nitrogen species on the ocean, it was recognized that this was a significant and complex scientific issue that required a more in depth study. An abbreviated form of the new Terms of Reference were as follows:

  • Update the geographical estimates of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen deposition to the global ocean;
  • Re-evaluate the magnitude and impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on marine biogeochemistry;
  • Provide a more reliable estimate of the impact of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on the production of additional nitrous oxide in the ocean and its subsequent emission to the atmosphere;
  • Evaluate the extent to which anthropogenic nitrogen, delivered to the coastal zone via rivers, is transported to the open ocean; and
  • Make a detailed estimate of the input and impact of anthropogenic nitrogen in the area of the Northern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.

GESAMP WG 38 website: http://www.gesamp.org/work/groups/38
 
From 27 February to March 2 two workshops took place at the University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, United Kingdom under the auspices of GESAMP Working Group 38 and sponsored by WMO, NSF, SCOR, SOLAS and UEA. These workshops focussed on the changes in the acid/base balance of the atmosphere and ocean, and their impacts on air-sea exchange.

Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE)

Listening to the calls demanding increased cooperation and communication around low oxygen concentration in the marine environment, IOC-UNESCO initiated an ad hoc network of scientists focused on oxygen in both the open ocean and coastal areas – the Global Ocean Oxygen Network (GO2NE).

The Network’s scientific work, outreach, and capacity building efforts include facilitating communication with other established networks and working groups, improving observations systems, identifying and filling knowledge gaps, as well as developing related capacity development activities.

Website: https://en.unesco.org/go2ne

In September 2019, SOLAS sponsored the GO2NE summer school which took place in Xiamen, China.

Surface Ocean CO₂ Atlas (SOCAT)

The Surface Ocean CO₂ Atlas (SOCAT) is a synthesis activity for quality-controlled, surface ocean fCO₂ (fugacity of carbon dioxide) observations by the international marine carbon research community (>100 contributors).

SOCAT data is publicly available, discoverable and citable.

SOCAT enables quantification of the ocean carbon sink and ocean acidification and evaluation of ocean biogeochemical models. SOCAT, which celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2017, represents a milestone in biogeochemical and climate research and in informing policy.

Website: https://www.socat.info/

The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2)

The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2) is a major global scientific program which will engage the international scientific community in collaborative oceanographic and atmospheric research from coastal environments to the deep sea over the period 2015-2020, revealing new information on the Indian Ocean (i.e. its currents, its influence upon the climate, its marine ecosystems) which is fundamental for future sustainable development and expansion of the Indian Ocean’s blue economy.

The International Indian Ocean Science Conference 2020 (IIOSC-2020) will be held 16-20 March 2020 in Goa, India (Conference website)

Website: https://iioe-2.incois.gov.in/IIOE-2/iioe-2.jsp

Xiamen Symposium on Marine Environmental Sciences (XMAS)

To foster knowledge and ideas exchange within the marine environmental science community and, in particular, to promote interdisciplinary studies, the State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science (MEL) of Xiamen University, China, initiated the Xiamen Symposium on Marine Environmental Sciences (XMAS).

The XMAS-III was held in January 2017, attracting over 620 participants from more than 140 institutions across 21 countries.

The XMAS-IV was held in January 2019. A SOLAS session on 'Surface Ocean and Lower Atmosphere Study - Air-Sea interactions and their climatic and environmental impacts' was convened by Guiling Zhang, Huiwang Gao, Mohd Talib Latif, Jun Nishioka, Senchao Lai, Bingbing Wang.

The XMAS-V will be held in January 2021. The focus will be on how Multidisciplinary Sciences Can Serve a Sustainable and Healthy Ocean. It will be one of the important hallmarks of Xiamen University’s centenary celebrations. The symposium will consist of different, interconnected sessions covering physical oceanography, marine biogeochemistry, biological oceanography, and marine ecotoxicology along with workshops for emerging topics in marine environmental sciences such as how to achieve the goals outlined in the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030).

SOLAS is a co-sponsor of the event.

Event website: http://melmeeting.xmu.edu.cn/xmas5/

International Symposium on the Effects of Climate Change on the World Oceans

The  4th  International Symposium on the Effects of Climate Change on the World Oceans (ECCWO) took place from 2-8 June 2018 in Washington, DC, USA. The Symposium focused on un-derstanding and responding to climate impacts on ocean systems. SOLAS organised a session on “Eastern Boundary upwelling sys-tems: diversity, coupled dynamics and sensitivity to climate change”, which was co-chaired by Ivonne Montes (Perú ) and Ryan Rykaczewski (USA).

SOLAS was a co-sponsor of the event. 

Symposium website: https://meetings.pices.int/meetings/international/2018/climate-change/Background

 

Workshop on Oceanic Methane and Nitrous Oxide: The present situation and future scenarios

In October 2018, a SOLAS co-sponsored OCB workshop addressed the following questions to help determine the future directions of methane and nitrous oxide measurements in the global oceans:

Where in the global oceans should spatial and temporal surveys be conducted to discern climatologically-relevant changes in water-column inventories of methane and nitrous oxide?  This is an important question facing oceanographers today. However, attempts to answer this question stimulate many related and relevant queries concerning the production and consumption of methane and nitrous oxide in the ocean. For example, how will their water-column concentrations be influenced by factors such as increasing seawater temperatures, decreasing oxygen concentrations, and changing nutrient loading? Do we have sufficient analytical and observational capacity to conduct robust temporal surveys? Do we sufficiently comprehend the microbial metabolic pathways that produce and consume these two trace gases?

Watch the workshop's video output here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0DyMyIVs4Qs

Website: https://web.whoi.edu/methane-workshop/

The Latin American Ocean Acidification Network (LAOCA)

The mission of the Latin American Ocean Acidification Network (LAOCA) is to communicate and enhance understanding of ocean acidification process in Latin America, and its interaction with other local processes and their impact on marine ecosystems and their services through international cooperation.

The LAOCA network consists of 36 members from 8 Latin American countries:
Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru. Developing researchers in Ocean Acidification in 4 main lines of research: Carbonate system chemistry (37%), Modeling (13%), Socio-Ecological Assessment (15%),
In turn, these lines of research cover the following environments : Staurino (27%), Coastal (49%), and Oceanic (24%).

Website: https://laoca.cl/en/

SCOR Working Groups

Every year, the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) forms new Working Groups (WG) which consist of up to ten members and should be completed in four years.

The following WGs are relevant to SOLAS science.

WG 155 - Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS): diversity, coupled dynamics and sensitivity to climate change

Co-chairs: Ivonne Montes (Peru) and Ruben Escribano (Chile)

Other Full Members: Francisco Chavez (USA), Enrique Curchitser (USA), Boris Dewitte (France), Sara Fawcett (South Africa), Salvador Lluch-Cota (Mexico), Baye Cheikh Mbaye (Senegal), Andreas Oschlies (Germany), and Parv Suntharalingam (UK)

Associate Members: Edward Allison (USA), Javier Aristegui (Spain), Xavier Capet (France), Ming Feng (Australia), Iris Kriest (Germany), Eric Machu (France), Ryan Rykaczewski (PICES, USA), Lynne Shannon (South Africa), Damodar Shenoy (India), and Beatriz Yanicelli (Chile)

The SCOR Working Group 155 is focused on reviewing the existing knowledge on EBUS and formulate a strategic recommendation white paper for setting up regional observational systems and climate modeling approaches to monitor and understand physical and biogeochemical ocean-atmosphere processes. These observational systems will be instrumental in improving the performance and reliability of climate models in these socio-economically relevant regions of the world ocean.

Approved: September 2017

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF, PICES

Upcoming event: Open Science Conference September 5 - 10, 2021 Venue: Lima, Perú (Conference website)

Website: https://scah.igp.gob.pe/scor-working-group-155

WG 154 - Integration of Plankton-Observing Sensor Systems to Existing Global Sampling Programs (P-OBS)

Co-chairs: Emmanuel Boss (USA) and Anya Waite (Germany)

Other Full Members: Silvia Acinas (Spain), Ilana Berman-Frank (Israel), Marcela Cornejo (Chile), Katja Fennel (Canada), Heidi Sosik (USA), Sandy Thomalla (South Africa), Julia Uitz (France), and Hidekatsu Yamazaki (Japan)

Associate Members: Sonia Batten (Canada and PICES), Jørgen Berge (Norway), Herve Claustre (France), Gérald Grégori (France), Johannes Karstensen (Germany), Frank Muller-Karger (USA), Anthony Richardson (Australia), Bernadette Sloyan (Australia), and Rik Wanninkhof (USA)

Terms of Reference

To identify best practices (technologies and sampling protocols) and technical feasibility to incorporate plankton measurements into global ocean observing platforms (initially GO-SHIP and for expansion into the mooring array of OceanSITES).

  1. Identify current technologies (sensors as well as water sample analysis) that can be integrated into existing observing infrastructure to provide input and guide studies of plankton for marine ecosystem and biogeochemistry studies.
  2. Provide the necessary details associated with every technology/measurement proposed (e.g., power, cost, and human effort).
  3. Document potential applications, including science case studies and lists of publications, and document measurement protocols. Develop adequate protocols when these are not available.
  4. Identify synergies with specific measurements done from other observing programs (e.g., BGC-Argo, space-based measurements, Continuous Plankton Recorder surveys) to provide cross-calibration and a better representation of the 4-D distribution of the parameter measured.
  5. Identify technological limitations and/or gaps, and identify areas of priority investments to develop and implement the required observation technologies and tools for specific needs.
  6. Increase awareness of the availability of biological oceanographic datasets internationally and identify barriers to their access and use, particularly in developing nations.

Approved: September 2017

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF, PICES

Website: https://scor-int.org/group/154/

WG 153 - Floating Litter and its Oceanic TranSport Analysis and Modelling (FLOTSAM)

Chairs: Stefano Aliani (Italy)

Vice-Chairs: Nikolai Maximenko (USA), Kara Lavender Law (USA), and Erik van Sebille (Netherlands)

Other Full Members: Bertrand Chapron (France), Irina Chubarenko (Russia), Atsuhiko Isobe (Japan), Victor Martinez-Vicente (UK), Peter Ryan (South Africa), Won Joon Shim (South Korea), and Martin Thiel (Chile)

Associate Members: Melanie Bergmann (Germany), Yi Chao (USA), Baylor Fox-Kemper (USA), Denise Hardesty (Australia), Tobias Kukulka (USA), Laurent Lebreton (New Zealand), Christophe Maes (France), and Miguel Morales Maqueda (UK)

Terms of Reference

  1. Identify gaps in our knowledge of the near-surface ocean dynamics that may affect litter distribution and transport.
  2. Improve future marine litter modelling capabilities.
  3. Evaluate existing and emerging remote sensing technologies that can be applied to marine litter in the open ocean.
  4. Improve awareness of the scientific understanding of marine debris, based on better observations and modelling results.

Approved: September 2017

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF

Website: http://scor-flotsam.it/

WG 152 - Measuring Essential Climate Variables in Sea Ice (ECVice)

Co-chairs: Daiki Nomura (Japan), François Fripiat (Belgium) and Brent Else (Canada)

Other Full Members: Bruno Delille (Belgium), Mar Fernandez-Méndez (Norway), Lisa Miller (Canada), Ilka Peeken (Germany), Janne Markus Rintala (Finland), Maria van Leeuwe (Netherlands), and Fan Zhang (China-Beijing).

Associate Members: Katarina Abrahamsson (Sweden), Jeff Bowman (USA), James France (UK), Agneta Fransson (Norway), Delphine Lannuzel (Australia), Brice Loose (USA), Klaus Meiners (Australia), Christopher J. Mundy (Canada), Hyoung Chul Shin (Korea), Jean-Louis Tison (Belgium), and Marcello Vichi (South Africa)

Terms of Reference

  1. Publish synthetic reviews compiled from measurements demonstrating large, unresolved discrepancies, with a special emphasis on primary production, gas concentrations and fluxes. These detailed reviews will draw on both the literature and unpublished studies to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses related to each methodology.
  2. Design and coordinate intercalibration experiments to evaluate different methods for key parameters. In addition to organizing field experiments, we will pursue use of ice tank facilities and stimulate and support applications for funding, at both national and international levels, to further facilitate the experiments. If successful, manuscripts will be written and the outcomes will be presented in the guide of best practice to support the recommendations.
  3. Design intercomparison studies to facilitate validation and adoption of new technologies for assessing the complexity and heterogeneity of sea ice at various spatial and temporal scales.
  4. Create a guide of best practices for biological and biogeochemical studies in the sea-ice environment. This will be accomplished using a web-based forum for compiling and disseminating the outcomes of past and new intercomparison studies.

Approved: September 2016

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF

Website: https://sites.google.com/view/ecv-ice/

WG 151 - Iron Model Intercomparison Project (FeMIP)

Co-chairs: Alessandro Tagliabue (UK) and Stephanie Dutkiewicz (USA)

Other Full Members: Tatiana Ilyina (Germany), Kazuhiro Misumi (Japan), Fanny Monteiro (UK), J. Keith Moore (USA), Yeala Shaked (Israel), Marcello Vichi (South Africa), Christoph Völker (Germany), Mustafa Yücel (Turkey)

Associate Members: Olivier Aumont (France), Alex Baker (UK), Philip Boyd (Australia), Fei Chai (China-Beijing), Peter Croot (Ireland), Christel Hassler (Switzerland), Eun Young Kwon (Korea), Jun Nishioka (Japan), Maite Maldonado (Canada), Mark Moore (UK), Andy Ridgwell (USA), Benjamin Twining (USA)

Terms of Reference

  1. To identify best practices for minimum complexity representations of the iron cycle in models , with options given for more advanced aspects, and publish the guidance in a peer-reviewed paper.
  2. To develop tools for a wide variety of platforms to validate global model results in a standardised way and make these available via a peer-reviewed publication and a website.
  3. To facilitate a focussed intercomparison of iron models to constrain the impact of varying residence times and a consensus dust deposition scheme and publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal.
  4. To review how to represent biological interactions in the iron cycle, the linkages to key phytoplankton species and the interactions with zooplankton and bacteria, as well as broader connections with other biogeochemical cycles and publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal.

Approved: September 2016

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF

Website: https://scor-int.org/group/151/

WG 149 - Changing Ocean Biological Systems (COBS): How will biota respond to a changing ocean?

Chair: Philip Boyd (Australia)

Other Full Members: Aurea Ciotti (Brazil), Sinead Collins (UK), Kunshan Gao (China-Beijing), Jean-Pierre Gattuso (France), Marion Gehlen (France), David Hutchins (USA), Christina McGraw (Australia), Jorge Navarro (Chile), and Ulf Riebesell (Germany)

Associate Members: Haimanti Biswas (India), Sam Dupont (Sweden), Katharina Fabricius (Australia), Jonathan Havenhand (Sweden), Catriona Hurd (Australia), Haruko Kurihara (Japan), Gorann Nilsson (Norway), Uta Passow (USA), Hans-Otto Pörtner (Germany), and Marcello Vichi (Italy)

Terms of Reference

  1. Assess the current status of emerging research themes by reviewing the literature to assess the dominant research foci, their relative coverage, and identify any major gaps and/or limitations. Publish this review in an open-access peer-reviewed journal.
  2. Raise awareness across different scientific communities (evolutionary experimental biologists, ecologists, physiologists, chemists, modelers) to initiate better alignment and integration of research efforts.
  3. Co-ordinate thematic transdisciplinary sessions to attract and assemble experts from other fields such as paleoceanography and marine ecotoxicology to learn from the successful approaches their fields have developed to address multiple drivers.
  4. Develop a multi-driver Best-Practice Guide (BPG, or other tools) as one potentially valuable way to help this research field move forward in a cohesive manner.
  5. Mentor early-career scientists in the design process for complex multiple driver manipulation experiments, familiarize them with BPG, and teach them practical methodologies for the analysis of their experimental findings.
  6. Publish a series of short articles in both the scientific media and with scientific journalists to disseminate the challenges and opportunities surrounding multiple drivers and ecosystems.
  7. Engage with policy-makers and science communication experts to produce a glossary of terms and an implementation guide for policy-makers to better understand the role of multiple drivers in altering marine living resources and ecosystem services.

Approved: December 2015

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF, PICES

Website: https://scor149-ocean.com/

WG 143 - Dissolved N2O and CH4 measurements: Working towards a global network of ocean time series measurements of N2O and CH4

Chair(s): Herman Bange (Germany) and Sam Wilson (USA)

Other Full Members: Mercedes de la Paz Arándiga (Spain), Laura Farias (Chile), Cliff Law (New Zealand), Wajih Naqvi (India), Gregor Rehder (Germany), Philippe Tortell (Canada), Rob Upstill-Goddard (UK), and Guiling Zhang (China-Beijing)

Associate Members: John Bullister (USA), Jan Kaiser (UK), Annette Kock (Germany), Sunyoung Park (Korea), Andy Rees (UK), and Alyson Santoro (USA)

Terms of Reference

  1. Establish the analytical reporting procedures to be used for N2O and CH4
  2. Adopt an appropriate standard to be used by the scientific community
  3. Conduct an intercalibration exercise between the time series programs
  4. Host at least two international meetings
  5. Establish framework for an N2O/CH4 ocean time-series network
  6. Write a global oceanic N2O/CH4 summary paper for publication in Annual Review of Marine Science or an equivalent journal.

Approved: November 2013

Financial Sponsors: NSF, SCOR

Website: https://portal.geomar.de/web/scor-wg-143/home

WG 141 - Sea-Surface Microlayers

Chair(s): Michael Cunliffe (UK) and Oliver Wurl (Germany)

Other Full Members: Anja Engel (Germany), Sanja Frka (Croatia), Sonia Giasenella (Brazil), Bill Landing (USA), Mohd T. Latif (Malaysia), Caroline Leck (Sweden), Gui-Peng Yang (China-Beijing), and Christopher Zappa (USA)

Associate Members: David Carlson (UK), Alina Ebling (USA), Werner Ekau (Germany), Blaženka Gašparović (Croatia), Karstan Laß (Germany), Miguel Leal (USA), Anna Lindroos (Finland), Kenneth Mopper (USA), Alexander Soloviev (USA), Christian Stolle (Germany), Robert Upstill-Goddard (UK), and Svein Vagle (Canada)

Terms of Reference

  1. Review sampling techniques and provide best practice sampling protocols. Such protocols will support new scientists entering the field of SML research to produce reliable and comparable data among different research groups/oceanic regions. The best practice sampling document will be made freely available online.

  2. Create a consensus definition of the SML in terms of physical, chemical and biological perspectives for a better understanding within the ocean science community, and discuss the SML’s role in a changing ocean. This will be delivered as an opinion/position paper in a peer-reviewed journal and will support future international projects concerning the SML and ocean change.

  3. Initiate sessions on SML research during major meetings (e.g., Ocean Sciences Meetings), to increase the awareness of the importance of the SML within the general ocean science community.

  4. Summarize and publish the latest advances in microlayer research in a special issue of a peer-reviewed journal, including consolidation of existing sea surface microlayer datasets among different disciplines (chemistry, biology, atmospheric, physics). The publication will promote new research ideas and projects at an interdisciplinary level.

Approved: October 2012

Financial Sponsors: NSF, SCOR

Media:
R/V Falkor Cruise 2019
R/V Falkor Cruise 2016

Sponsors

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