SCOR Working Groups

Every year, the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) forms new Working Groups (WG) which consist of up to ten members and should be completed in four years.

The following WGs are relevant to SOLAS science.

WG 167 - Reducing Uncertainty in Soluble aerosol Trace Element Deposition (RUSTED)

Chairs: Rachel Shelley (UK), Douglas Hamilton (USA), Morgane Perron (France)

Other Full Members: Hind Al-Abadleh (Canada), Peter Croot (Ireland), Diego Gaiero (Argentina), Cassandra Gaston (USA), Akinori Ito (Japan), Ashwini Kumar (India), Ying Ye (Germany)

Associate Members: Alex Baker (UK), Andrew Bowie (Australia), Suzanne Fietz (South Africa), Cecile Guieu (France), Tung-Yuan Ho (Taiwan), Nicholas Meskhidze (USA), Yeala Shaked (Israel), Mingjin Tang (China), Holly Winton (New Zealand), Andrew Wozniak (USA)

Terms of Reference

  1. With a primary focus on Fe, review the past three decades of literature to identify knowledge gaps in relating the physicochemical properties of aerosol micronutrients with their solubility and bioavailability in the ocean. Synthesise data collected into: (1) an open access peer-reviewed research directions manuscript, providing guidance for future research; and (2) a database of soluble aerosol Fe measurements, providing a consistent constraint for models and a spatiotemporal focus for where new observations are most needed.

  2. Incorporate the results of the ongoing aerosol TE intercomparison to: (1) recommend a set of Standard Operating Procedures for common leach schemes; (2) publish a manuscript of comparative results for the leach schemes investigated; and (3) assess aerosol TE solubility data produced in the last 20-30 years to inform modellers on how to choose the optimal data for model validation and constraint.

  3. Utilise the available data for other aerosol trace elements and aerosol chemical composition to advance our understanding of the solubility of Fe and other biogeochemically-important elements. A synthesis paper of the relationship between aerosol TE concentrations and fractional solubility will be published.

  4. Bring together the observational and modelling communities to capitalise on the progress made from ToRs 1-3 to identify ways in which current numerical models can improve their handling of Fe, including impacts beyond ocean biogeochemistry. Address differences between laboratory and model solubilisation schemes, linking to their environmental relevance. Initiate transdisciplinary discussion to identify which micronutrients most require study next and publish the related guidance.

Approved: October 2022

Financial Sponsors: SCOR

Upcoming event: tbc


WG 166 - Developing resources for the study of Methylated Sulfur compound cycling PROcesses in the ocean (DMS-PRO)

Chairs: Martí Galí (Spain), Daniela del Valle (Argentina)

Other Full Members: Steve Archer (USA), José González (Spain), Hakase Hayashida (Japan), Franceas Hopkins (UK), Sohiko Kameyama (Japan), Erin McParland (USA), Jacqueline Stefels (Netherlands), Marcos Zárate (Argentina)

Associate Members: Hermann Bange (Germany), Eva Bucciarelli (France), Elisabeth Deschaseaux (Australia), Ki-Tae Park (South Korea), Damodar Shenoy (India), Jon Todd (UK), Philippe Tortell (Canada), Lenny Winkel (Switzerland), Gui-Peng Yang (China), Miming Zhang (China)

Terms of Reference

  1. To develop community consensus on the measurement of MSC cycling rates, evaluate the suitability of available methods, and recommend standard operating practices (SOP).

  2. To compile a comprehensive database of MSC cycling rates in the ocean and to freely disseminate the database and related documentation according to the FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability) principles.

  3. To develop a framework for the quality assessment and control, standardization, and curation of MSC cycling datasets.

  4. To analyze and summarize the patterns of MSC cycling rates in the global ocean in relation to their abiotic and biotic environment.

  5. To provide expert guidance on the use of the MSC cycling database for model development and evaluation.

  6. To improve the coordination between measurements of MSC cycling rates and stocks, and foster interdisciplinary research by relating these to other biogeochemical variables and molecular and ‘omics data.

  7. To establish an international community of practice focused on research, capacity development, and oceanographic multidisciplinary collaboration in the topic of oceanic S cycle.

Approved: October 2022

Financial Sponsors: SCOR

Upcoming event: tbc


WG 163 - Coupling of ocean-ice-atmosphere processes: from sea-Ice biogeochemistry to aerosols and Clouds (CIce2Clouds)

Chairs: Nadja Steiner (Canada) and Megan Willis (USA)

Other Full Members: Thorsten Bartels-Rausch (Switzerland), Odile Crabeck (Belgium), Markus Frey (UK), Hakase Hayashida (Australia), Anoop S. Mahajan (India), Daiki Nomura (Japan), Jennie Thomas (France), Liyang Zhan (China)

Associate Members: Jessie Creamean (USA), Srishti Dasarathy (USA), Bruno Delille (Belgium), Inge Deschepper (Canada), Francois Fripiat (Belgium), Sakiko Ishino (Japan), Hyung-Gyu Lim (USA/Korea), Louis Marelle (Norway/France), Klaus Meiners (Australia), Lisa Miller (Canada), Ilka Peeken (Germany), Jacqueline Stefels (Netherlands/Germany), Marcello Vichi (South Africa), Esty Willcox (Canada), Paul Zieger (Sweden)

Terms of Reference

  1. To prioritize key coupled biological and chemical systems that drive atmospheric reactive trace gas, aerosol, and cloud properties in polar ocean environments. Synthesize expertise from ocean, sea-ice, snow, and atmospheric chemistry communities to provide a hierarchy of chemical species that reflect common overlapping science questions.

  2. To identify similarities and differences in controls on exchange processes between the Arctic and Antarctic O-SI-S-A systems. Compare and contrast common sea-ice and snow properties at both poles. Use this polar ocean comparison to describe how sea-ice properties control exchange processes, and constrain projections of future changes.

  3. To develop a conceptual model of exchange processes in O-SI-S-A systems, focusing on key reactive trace gas and aerosol species prioritized in O1. Conceptual model evolution will be based on existing observational and numerical expertise, and will reflect the impact of heterogeneity in sea-ice environments at present and under future climate change scenario.

  4. To develop interdisciplinary campaign planning recommendations to guide future studies and address model and measurement gaps. Building on the conceptual model (O3), we will identify future needs in observations and model parameterisations, and outline requirements for fully integrated, multidisciplinary and collaborative O-SI-S-A field, laboratory, and modeling research.

  5. To facilitate community and capacity building opportunities for sustainable multidisciplinary science at the O-SI-S-A interface. Engage scientifically emerging countries and early career scientists in both observational and modeling communities.

Approved: October 2021

Financial Sponsors: SCOR

Upcoming event: tbc


WG 162- Developing an Observing Air-Sea Interactions Strategy (OASIS)

Chairs: Meghan Cronin (USA), Sebastiaan Swart (Sweden)

Other Full Members: Nadia Pinardi (Italy), R. Venkatesan (India), Phil Browne (UK), Warren Joubert (South Africa), Ute Schuster (UK), Christa Marandino (Germany), Shuangling Chen (China), Clarissa Anderson (USA)

Associate Members: Jim Edson (USA), Zhaohui Chen (China), Juliet Hermes (South Africa), Fabrice Ardhuin (France), Oscar Alves (Australia), Hiroyuki Tomita (Japan)

Terms of Reference

  1. Harmonize the recommendations from the OceanObs’19 CWPs into a unified Observing Air-Sea Interaction Strategy (OASIS) by identifying and ranking overlaps and resolving apparent contradictions, focusing on global air-sea exchanges of heat, moisture, momentum, important greenhouse gasses, biogenic trace gasses, and the multidisciplinary boundary layer variables associated with these air-sea exchanges.

  2. Produce a capacity building strategy that enables developing nations (including least developed nations and island nations) to actively participate in and benefit from local-to-global air-sea interaction observations. This will involve a training strategy, as well as identification of opportunities for leveraging contributions by new partners.

  3. Develop and assess network designs that optimize air-sea interaction observations,  following the Framework for Ocean Observations, in coordination with OceanPredict, and other working groups focused on optimizing network design.

  4. Develop a strategy for air-sea interaction process studies to address knowledge gaps;  to improve model and satellite representation of Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs), Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), and Essential Biological Variables (EBVs) associated with air-sea interaction processes; and to develop parameterizations to relate variables that are difficult to measure with variables that can be broadly observed.

  5. Develop a strategy for assessing interoperability of surface observing platforms. This will include intercomparisons of EOV, ECV, and EBVs observed from different platforms; development of best practices; and development of procedures to increase Technical Readiness Levels and expand technology solutions.

  6. Build community and capacity for using, operating, and developing air-sea interaction observational platforms that allow collaborative partnerships with existing national and international air-sea interaction working groups and observational coordination groups.

Approved: October 2020

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF

OASIS was endorsed by the UN Ocean Decade, see here

Upcoming event: tbc


WG 155 - Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS): diversity, coupled dynamics and sensitivity to climate change

Co-chairs: Ivonne Montes (Peru) and Ruben Escribano (Chile)

Other Full Members: Francisco Chavez (USA), Enrique Curchitser (USA), Boris Dewitte (France), Sara Fawcett (South Africa), Salvador Lluch-Cota (Mexico), Baye Cheikh Mbaye (Senegal), Andreas Oschlies (Germany), and Parv Suntharalingam (UK)

Associate Members: Edward Allison (USA), Javier Aristegui (Spain), Xavier Capet (France), Ming Feng (Australia), Iris Kriest (Germany), Eric Machu (France), Ryan Rykaczewski (PICES, USA), Lynne Shannon (South Africa), Damodar Shenoy (India), and Beatriz Yanicelli (Chile)

The SCOR Working Group 155 is focused on reviewing the existing knowledge on EBUS and formulate a strategic recommendation white paper for setting up regional observational systems and climate modeling approaches to monitor and understand physical and biogeochemical ocean-atmosphere processes. These observational systems will be instrumental in improving the performance and reliability of climate models in these socio-economically relevant regions of the world ocean.

Approved: September 2017

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF, PICES

Upcoming event: Open Science Conference September 5 - 10, 2021 Venue: Lima, Perú (Conference website)


WG 154 - Integration of Plankton-Observing Sensor Systems to Existing Global Sampling Programs (P-OBS)

Co-chairs: Emmanuel Boss (USA) and Anya Waite (Germany)

Other Full Members: Silvia Acinas (Spain), Ilana Berman-Frank (Israel), Marcela Cornejo (Chile), Katja Fennel (Canada), Heidi Sosik (USA), Sandy Thomalla (South Africa), Julia Uitz (France), and Hidekatsu Yamazaki (Japan)

Associate Members: Sonia Batten (Canada and PICES), Jørgen Berge (Norway), Herve Claustre (France), Gérald Grégori (France), Johannes Karstensen (Germany), Frank Muller-Karger (USA), Anthony Richardson (Australia), Bernadette Sloyan (Australia), and Rik Wanninkhof (USA)

Terms of Reference

To identify best practices (technologies and sampling protocols) and technical feasibility to incorporate plankton measurements into global ocean observing platforms (initially GO-SHIP and for expansion into the mooring array of OceanSITES).

  1. Identify current technologies (sensors as well as water sample analysis) that can be integrated into existing observing infrastructure to provide input and guide studies of plankton for marine ecosystem and biogeochemistry studies.
  2. Provide the necessary details associated with every technology/measurement proposed (e.g., power, cost, and human effort).
  3. Document potential applications, including science case studies and lists of publications, and document measurement protocols. Develop adequate protocols when these are not available.
  4. Identify synergies with specific measurements done from other observing programs (e.g., BGC-Argo, space-based measurements, Continuous Plankton Recorder surveys) to provide cross-calibration and a better representation of the 4-D distribution of the parameter measured.
  5. Identify technological limitations and/or gaps, and identify areas of priority investments to develop and implement the required observation technologies and tools for specific needs.
  6. Increase awareness of the availability of biological oceanographic datasets internationally and identify barriers to their access and use, particularly in developing nations.

Approved: September 2017

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF, PICES


WG 153 - Floating Litter and its Oceanic TranSport Analysis and Modelling (FLOTSAM)

Chairs: Stefano Aliani (Italy)

Vice-Chairs: Nikolai Maximenko (USA), Kara Lavender Law (USA), and Erik van Sebille (Netherlands)

Other Full Members: Bertrand Chapron (France), Irina Chubarenko (Russia), Atsuhiko Isobe (Japan), Victor Martinez-Vicente (UK), Peter Ryan (South Africa), Won Joon Shim (South Korea), and Martin Thiel (Chile)

Associate Members: Melanie Bergmann (Germany), Yi Chao (USA), Baylor Fox-Kemper (USA), Denise Hardesty (Australia), Tobias Kukulka (USA), Laurent Lebreton (New Zealand), Christophe Maes (France), and Miguel Morales Maqueda (UK)

Terms of Reference

  1. Identify gaps in our knowledge of the near-surface ocean dynamics that may affect litter distribution and transport.
  2. Improve future marine litter modelling capabilities.
  3. Evaluate existing and emerging remote sensing technologies that can be applied to marine litter in the open ocean.
  4. Improve awareness of the scientific understanding of marine debris, based on better observations and modelling results.

Approved: September 2017

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF


WG 152 - Measuring Essential Climate Variables in Sea Ice (ECVice)

Co-chairs: Daiki Nomura (Japan), François Fripiat (Belgium) and Brent Else (Canada)

Other Full Members: Bruno Delille (Belgium), Mar Fernandez-Méndez (Norway), Lisa Miller (Canada), Ilka Peeken (Germany), Janne Markus Rintala (Finland), Maria van Leeuwe (Netherlands), and Fan Zhang (China-Beijing).

Associate Members: Katarina Abrahamsson (Sweden), Jeff Bowman (USA), James France (UK), Agneta Fransson (Norway), Delphine Lannuzel (Australia), Brice Loose (USA), Klaus Meiners (Australia), Christopher J. Mundy (Canada), Hyoung Chul Shin (Korea), Jean-Louis Tison (Belgium), and Marcello Vichi (South Africa)

Terms of Reference

  1. Publish synthetic reviews compiled from measurements demonstrating large, unresolved discrepancies, with a special emphasis on primary production, gas concentrations and fluxes. These detailed reviews will draw on both the literature and unpublished studies to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses related to each methodology.
  2. Design and coordinate intercalibration experiments to evaluate different methods for key parameters. In addition to organizing field experiments, we will pursue use of ice tank facilities and stimulate and support applications for funding, at both national and international levels, to further facilitate the experiments. If successful, manuscripts will be written and the outcomes will be presented in the guide of best practice to support the recommendations.
  3. Design intercomparison studies to facilitate validation and adoption of new technologies for assessing the complexity and heterogeneity of sea ice at various spatial and temporal scales.
  4. Create a guide of best practices for biological and biogeochemical studies in the sea-ice environment. This will be accomplished using a web-based forum for compiling and disseminating the outcomes of past and new intercomparison studies.

Approved: September 2016

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF


WG 151 - Iron Model Intercomparison Project (FeMIP)

Co-chairs: Alessandro Tagliabue (UK) and Stephanie Dutkiewicz (USA)

Other Full Members: Tatiana Ilyina (Germany), Kazuhiro Misumi (Japan), Fanny Monteiro (UK), J. Keith Moore (USA), Yeala Shaked (Israel), Marcello Vichi (South Africa), Christoph Völker (Germany), Mustafa Yücel (Turkey)

Associate Members: Olivier Aumont (France), Alex Baker (UK), Philip Boyd (Australia), Fei Chai (China-Beijing), Peter Croot (Ireland), Christel Hassler (Switzerland), Eun Young Kwon (Korea), Jun Nishioka (Japan), Maite Maldonado (Canada), Mark Moore (UK), Andy Ridgwell (USA), Benjamin Twining (USA)

Terms of Reference

  1. To identify best practices for minimum complexity representations of the iron cycle in models , with options given for more advanced aspects, and publish the guidance in a peer-reviewed paper.
  2. To develop tools for a wide variety of platforms to validate global model results in a standardised way and make these available via a peer-reviewed publication and a website.
  3. To facilitate a focussed intercomparison of iron models to constrain the impact of varying residence times and a consensus dust deposition scheme and publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal.
  4. To review how to represent biological interactions in the iron cycle, the linkages to key phytoplankton species and the interactions with zooplankton and bacteria, as well as broader connections with other biogeochemical cycles and publish the results in a peer-reviewed journal.

Approved: September 2016

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF


WG 149 - Changing Ocean Biological Systems (COBS): How will biota respond to a changing ocean?

Chair: Philip Boyd (Australia)

Other Full Members: Aurea Ciotti (Brazil), Sinead Collins (UK), Kunshan Gao (China-Beijing), Jean-Pierre Gattuso (France), Marion Gehlen (France), David Hutchins (USA), Christina McGraw (Australia), Jorge Navarro (Chile), and Ulf Riebesell (Germany)

Associate Members: Haimanti Biswas (India), Sam Dupont (Sweden), Katharina Fabricius (Australia), Jonathan Havenhand (Sweden), Catriona Hurd (Australia), Haruko Kurihara (Japan), Gorann Nilsson (Norway), Uta Passow (USA), Hans-Otto Pörtner (Germany), and Marcello Vichi (Italy)

Terms of Reference

  1. Assess the current status of emerging research themes by reviewing the literature to assess the dominant research foci, their relative coverage, and identify any major gaps and/or limitations. Publish this review in an open-access peer-reviewed journal.
  2. Raise awareness across different scientific communities (evolutionary experimental biologists, ecologists, physiologists, chemists, modelers) to initiate better alignment and integration of research efforts.
  3. Co-ordinate thematic transdisciplinary sessions to attract and assemble experts from other fields such as paleoceanography and marine ecotoxicology to learn from the successful approaches their fields have developed to address multiple drivers.
  4. Develop a multi-driver Best-Practice Guide (BPG, or other tools) as one potentially valuable way to help this research field move forward in a cohesive manner.
  5. Mentor early-career scientists in the design process for complex multiple driver manipulation experiments, familiarize them with BPG, and teach them practical methodologies for the analysis of their experimental findings.
  6. Publish a series of short articles in both the scientific media and with scientific journalists to disseminate the challenges and opportunities surrounding multiple drivers and ecosystems.
  7. Engage with policy-makers and science communication experts to produce a glossary of terms and an implementation guide for policy-makers to better understand the role of multiple drivers in altering marine living resources and ecosystem services.

Approved: December 2015

Financial Sponsors: SCOR, NSF, PICES


WG 143 - Dissolved N2O and CH4 measurements: Working towards a global network of ocean time series measurements of N2O and CH4

Chair(s): Herman Bange (Germany) and Sam Wilson (USA)

Other Full Members: Mercedes de la Paz Arándiga (Spain), Laura Farias (Chile), Cliff Law (New Zealand), Wajih Naqvi (India), Gregor Rehder (Germany), Philippe Tortell (Canada), Rob Upstill-Goddard (UK), and Guiling Zhang (China-Beijing)

Associate Members: John Bullister (USA), Jan Kaiser (UK), Annette Kock (Germany), Sunyoung Park (Korea), Andy Rees (UK), and Alyson Santoro (USA)

Terms of Reference

  1. Establish the analytical reporting procedures to be used for N2O and CH4
  2. Adopt an appropriate standard to be used by the scientific community
  3. Conduct an intercalibration exercise between the time series programs
  4. Host at least two international meetings
  5. Establish framework for an N2O/CH4 ocean time-series network
  6. Write a global oceanic N2O/CH4 summary paper for publication in Annual Review of Marine Science or an equivalent journal.

Approved: November 2013

Financial Sponsors: NSF, SCOR


WG 141 - Sea-Surface Microlayers

Chair(s): Michael Cunliffe (UK) and Oliver Wurl (Germany)

Other Full Members: Anja Engel (Germany), Sanja Frka (Croatia), Sonia Giasenella (Brazil), Bill Landing (USA), Mohd T. Latif (Malaysia), Caroline Leck (Sweden), Gui-Peng Yang (China-Beijing), and Christopher Zappa (USA)

Associate Members: David Carlson (UK), Alina Ebling (USA), Werner Ekau (Germany), Blaženka Gašparović (Croatia), Karstan Laß (Germany), Miguel Leal (USA), Anna Lindroos (Finland), Kenneth Mopper (USA), Alexander Soloviev (USA), Christian Stolle (Germany), Robert Upstill-Goddard (UK), and Svein Vagle (Canada)

Terms of Reference

  1. Review sampling techniques and provide best practice sampling protocols. Such protocols will support new scientists entering the field of SML research to produce reliable and comparable data among different research groups/oceanic regions. The best practice sampling document will be made freely available online.

  2. Create a consensus definition of the SML in terms of physical, chemical and biological perspectives for a better understanding within the ocean science community, and discuss the SML’s role in a changing ocean. This will be delivered as an opinion/position paper in a peer-reviewed journal and will support future international projects concerning the SML and ocean change.

  3. Initiate sessions on SML research during major meetings (e.g., Ocean Sciences Meetings), to increase the awareness of the importance of the SML within the general ocean science community.

  4. Summarize and publish the latest advances in microlayer research in a special issue of a peer-reviewed journal, including consolidation of existing sea surface microlayer datasets among different disciplines (chemistry, biology, atmospheric, physics). The publication will promote new research ideas and projects at an interdisciplinary level.

Approved: October 2012

Financial Sponsors: NSF, SCOR

R/V Falkor Cruise 2019
R/V Falkor Cruise 2016